These days, hydroponic agriculture has gained many fans in the world, and European countries are at the forefront of this type of agriculture and are leaders in this field. The reason for the popularity of this method of agriculture is largely related to its efficiency compared to the old methods. In this method, greenhouse owners use intelligent management equipment to manage their greenhouse and achieve the final product.
In this article from Hexa Growbag, we examine this type of agriculture.
In very simple terms, the cultivation of plants in which no soil is used is called hydroponic cultivation or hydroponic agriculture. In other words, in this type of agriculture, other materials are used instead of soil. Cocopeat, peat moss, perlite and various types of mineral pumice and rockwool are examples of these materials.
The word hydroponics is made up of a combination of the two Greek words hydro, meaning water, and ponos, meaning work and effort. The word was first used by Dr. Greek, a professor at a university in California and has a long history. Many believe that the ancient city of Babylon, with its famous Hanging Gardens, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, is an elaborate hydroponic system into which fresh water, rich in oxygen and nutrients, is regularly pumped. .
The first modern reference to hydroponics (100 years ago) was by William Frederick Greek. While working at the University of California, Berkeley, he began promoting the idea that plants could be grown in nutrient and water solutions instead of soil.
Naturally, the general public, as well as William’s colleagues, were skeptical of this claim. He quickly proved them wrong by growing tomato grapes 25 feet high using water and nutrients. He decided to call this growth method hydroponic. The shocking results of the Gericke experiment with tomatoes led to further research in this area. Further research was done by scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, who discovered the many benefits of growing soilless plants.
hydroponic culture methods
Types of hydroponic greenhouses in terms of construction:
1. Tunnel greenhouses
Types of tunnel greenhouse structures do not have vertical and separate walls and the structure is curved from the point of connection to the ground. The roof shape of tunnel greenhouses is completely curved and angled; In the construction of this type of greenhouse, galvanized pipes are often used, which do not require concrete foundations for installation, and are fixed in the ground at a distance of 2.5-2 meters from each other. The width of the mouth of these tunnels can be 10-6 meters and their maximum height can be 3-4 meters. Tunnel greenhouse structures are relatively inexpensive and quick to install, and due to their curved shape, they have high resistance to wind and snow. It also allows plants to receive maximum sunlight.
2. Circular greenhouses
Circular greenhouse structures are arched roofs and vertical walls. A variety of circular greenhouse structures have a full arched roof. Circular greenhouse structures are built in most tropical areas where the wind is strong. The direction of construction of circular greenhouses is usually north-south and they are sunny all the time in sunlight. In circular greenhouses, most summer crops are grown on the greenhouse floor; Because it is not possible to crush. Plastic is usually used to cover circular greenhouses. The advantages of this type of greenhouse include the lowest level of aerodynamic resistance to wind and the maximum available air relative to the surface of the cover. Due to the good resistance of circular greenhouses against wind, water (heavy rain) and snow, it has become very popular in the world. Other advantages of circular greenhouses include being cheaper than other forms and direct sunlight throughout the day.
3- Peak greenhouses (gable)
All types of peak greenhouse structures have roofs with a slope of 25 to 30 degrees and vertical walls. Roof greenhouses are the most snow-resistant greenhouse structures that cost much more to build than other greenhouses. The most important advantage of this greenhouse compared to other types of greenhouses is the ability to transmit high light, which can bring the maximum amount of light into the greenhouse, which is one of the disadvantages in the tropics, especially in summer. This type of greenhouse is mostly used in cold regions and is mostly built in these areas.
The type of peak greenhouses you see pictured are known as glass greenhouses. Glass greenhouses are covered in such a way that maximum light can pass into the greenhouse building. Due to the conditions of the country, these types of greenhouses are rarely built in Iran and are used for special purposes. The cost of making different types of greenhouses is a bit high, in addition, we can use other types of greenhouses for agricultural uses that are made at a lower cost and have the same efficiency.
4. Gothic greenhouses (Spanish)
The design of Gothic greenhouse structures is a combination of peak and circular greenhouses with an arched roof. The gothic form is one of the strongest engineering structures known to date. Its appearance is similar to traditional and old greenhouses, but it has the most efficient performance. They have been used in countless operations and projects to date, all of which have been successful. As long as there is greenhouse cultivation and climate control, the use of Gothic greenhouses will be an ideal choice for all greenhouse growers around the world and in any region; Because it is both cost-effective and will increase the quality of plants. It is also easy to use the advanced mechanical system for those who intend to grow and cultivate plants professionally.
The advantage of building Gothic greenhouses is their relatively high resistance to strong winds and heavy snowfall. The special shape of the roof allows raindrops to fall on the cover and no water droplets drip on the plants. The Gothic greenhouse arch also raises the height of the central ridge of the greenhouse building, creating a suitable space for growing high-growing crops (such as tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers) and many tropical trees.
Types of plants that are grown hydroponically
Many plants and summer crops can be grown with hydroponic cultivation method. Some of the most productive plants for growing in hydroponic greenhouse are as follows:
Leading countries in the field of hydroponics
According to statistics, the United States and the Netherlands now have the largest and most advanced hydroponic greenhouses in the world and get the most out of the smallest area. These countries are also role models for other countries, and many greenhouse owners around the world use their equipment and technology in their greenhouses.
Hydroponic in IRAN
Our country, Iran, has been struggling with the water shortage crisis for many years, and agriculture by traditional methods is possible only in some areas of Iran that have suitable conditions and production is limited. For example, cultivation of tea and rice is possible only in the northern regions of Iran and watermelon cultivation is possible only in the tropics. Based on this, the shortage of hydroponic farming methods has been felt in Iran for years.
Today, however, Iran has a growing position in terms of the size and distribution of hydroponic greenhouses and is even exporting its products. Currently, the largest modern hydroponic glass greenhouse in the Middle East is operating in the Aras Free Zone and many other hydroponic greenhouses are operating in the suburbs of Tehran, Karaj, Fars, Chabahar, Sistan and Baluchestan and Lorestan.
The largest hydroponic greenhouse in Iran, which operates under the Aras Tarla Amin brand, has a useful area of about 50-60 hectares. Read more at Wikipedia
Anything can have advantages and disadvantages at the same time. The method of hydroponic cultivation is no exception to this rule, and in addition to its many advantages, it also has several drawbacks, which we will discuss in each of the advantages and disadvantages of hydroponic cultivation.
To set up a hydroponic greenhouse, depending on the budget and the plant you want to grow and the geographical environment in which you are, you can choose different designs for construction. We offer advice to a greenhouse company in this field. Now you have to provide the equipment you need for the selected design. Depending on your budget, the consultant may offer you a lot of imported or domestic equipment, which you should choose.
Intelligent irrigation management and control equipment
Temperature management and control equipment
Humidity management and control equipment
Air management and control equipment
Light management and control equipment and …
Estimating the cost of building a hydroponic greenhouse depends on all of the above. You have to see how much the greenhouse owner wants to spend. The cost of zero to one hundred for small greenhouses may start from 500 million tomans and for large greenhouses up to several million dollars. But for 5000 meter greenhouses this year (1401), a cost of 15-30 billion tomans can be considered.
What plants should we start with?
You probably have big dreams for producing and exporting your products. This happens, but we recommend that you gain some experience first. If you do not do everything right and do not reach the final product, you may be disappointed and abandon the whole project. You definitely do not want this to happen; Therefore, it is important to try several products for the first time. Once you get the results, you are ready to expand and diversify your hydroponic garden.
To begin with, we suggest starting with plants that have a one-month period of operation and their task will be determined very soon because they do not require long-term management. There are so many types of vegetables and products that we leave it to you to do a Google search 🙂
Where can we get a greenhouse license?
For agricultural lands that are not located in the city or village, you must obtain a permit from the Agricultural Jihad. Just go to the agricultural jihad office in your city and explain what you intend to do. Get the required documents from them and prepare them and hand them over to Jihad and start the case. You will reach your goal with a little running.
What is the minimum area required to receive a bank facility?
If you are planning to build a hydroponic greenhouse, you must first consider a suitable environment for building a greenhouse. We suggest that you refer to the Jihad and Agriculture Organization of your place of residence before choosing a suitable place to build a greenhouse, so that experts can guide you in choosing the best land. Obviously, a large area of land is suitable for greenhouse construction. If you plan to use a bank facility to develop your hydroponic greenhouse, the greenhouse land area must be at least 5,000 meters and the building area must be at least 3,000 meters. Because the plant is not grown in a hydroponic greenhouse on the soil, there are no issues such as distance and privacy and the suitability of the soil to choose the place of construction.